## 3. Servos

Servos

Our Servo Specs:
Speed: .18 sec/60degrees at 4.8V, .16 sec/60degree at 6.0V
Torque: 213 oz-in (15.5 kg-cm) at 4.8V, 231 oz-in(16.8 kg-cm) at 6.0V
Weight: 2.1 oz (60 grams)
Price: \$24.95 per servo (\$31.01 with S&H and Tax)

More Specs and measurements can be found at following link: http://www.dpcav.com/xcart/product.php?productid=16491&cat=255&page=1

 Servo Testing 12/5/09 Clock: .05 ms Time(ms) Angle Degrees from center Count 0.5 >180 >90 10 0.75 160 70 15 1.00 130 40 20 1.25 110 20 25 1.50 90 0 30 1.75 70 -20 35 2.0 50 -40 40 2.25 20 -70 45 2.50 <180 <-90 50

The clock on the FPGA is a signal that runs at 50 MHgz, we divided this down to make a slower clock that sends a signal at 0.05ms. The chart shows the "Time(ms)" which is the time period that a high signal is sent to the servo followed by a low signal for the rest of the 20ms refresh time. All servos use a 20ms time period, so a high signal lasting 1.5ms will be followed by 18.5ms of a low signal. 1.5ms is a standard that will bring the servo to the center, however not all servos follow this rule so we did a little bit of testing and confirmed the center mark manually using this tutorial.

The FPGA counts the length of high signals from the 0.05ms clock, so after a set amount of counts the signal will change from high to low and remain low for the 20ms refresh time. The column "Count" represents this amount, so 15 counts of 0.05ms is .75ms (15 X 0.05) and a high of .75ms moves the servo to 160 degrees. Note: The last column times 0.05ms equals the first column. The angles we found simply by testing different time periods and found corresponding angles using a protracter. The servo appears to be able to go around 170 degrees, we can not get it to go the full 180 degrees. The timing 1.50ms centers the servo so from the center we measured the degrees at each timing period.

Cutting the holes to fit the servos into was a bit of a challenge. We used a dremmel to cut the approximate width and lenth of the servos into the top of the housing and the arm then used a file to finish with a nice snug fit. We decided to keep the screw holes on the top rather than beneath the plastic (see pictures in housing). One of the screw holes on our servo broke so the bottom servo only has 3 screws keeping it in place.

A few tips:
1. When buying servos make sure that whichever ones you choose will be adequate for your project. Using servos that are do not have enough torque is a bad idea. To avoid this start by estimating how much the arm and gun will weigh and shoot for a servo that has torque about twice the weight you are trying to move.
2. The servos are sold by torque so if you are moving something heavy and want to do so quickly then those servos will be pretty expensive. To save money try to keep the arm and gun as light as possible, we did this by removing the excess plastic from the gun and using only the necessary parts.
3. Broken servos are not fun, keep your servos safe.